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Although emerged on the face of world as an independent sovereign state in 1947 as a result of the division of subcontinent, modern Pakistan has experienced a historic journey through several distinct periods since 3,000 years B.C. The existence of a highly developed civilization in the Indus Valley and excavations at different archaeological sites like Harrapa, Mohenjodaro, Kot Diji, and Neolithic Mehr Garh have witnessed the existence of an advance civilization flourished on this land even in prehistoric times. The problem, however, is that those ruins do not tell us about everything who built them and a 5000 years old mystery still lingers.
The progression of human from primitive society to the urban civilization is a fascinating history. Long after the intriguing Indus Valley Civilization, Aryans dominated this region in around 1500 B.C. and pushed the Hindu Civilization. Then approached the Persians in 5th century B.C. and occupied the northern region. Afterwards Greeks were led by Alexander the Great from Macedonia penetrated in 327 B.C. and hurried through most of the land. The prominent Muslim warrior Mohammad Bin Qasim landed in 712 A.D. in today’s Sindh and ruled the southern lands for almost 200 years and introduced Islam in the region which is rooted till date. The journey of milestones continued further to the Mughal Period. Babar was the first Mughal emperor who defeated Ibrahim Lodhi, the last Afghan King at Pani Pat. His intelligent son, Humayun, then succeeded Babar but Sher Shah Suri ousted him and ruled till his death in 1545. However, Humayun returned from exile in 1554 and ruled for another two years till his death. But his son Akbar who was known as the greatest of Mughal Emperors extended his empire from central India to Kashmir. The lively examples of their art today are the Taj Mahal in India, Shah Jahan mosque in Thatha, the Shalimar Gardens, Badshahi Mosque and the Shish Mahal in Lahore Fort.
British invaded the country in 1857 from the south face and reached the north. However, the British had moved in the subcontinent some two centuries ago as traders, gradually established stronghold in trade and entered politics in the guise of British East India Company. Steadily the British took over the power and land in the subcontinent and Queen Victoria’s empire that time even reached to the northern remote valley of Hunza.
The resolution of Pakistan propounded by Dr. Allama Iqbal for a separate homeland for the Muslims of the subcontinent was materialized by the father of nation (Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah) and Pakistan (East Pakistan now Bangladesh and West Pakistan) emerged as a sovereign state on the face of the world. The separation of the subcontinent was a difficult task because it had to be implemented within a limited period of time. Many millions lost their lives during locomotion. Pakistan was to consist of the Muslim-majority area and India was to retain the same Hindu dominated region but the problem was not resolved permanently, especially the problem of East Pakistan that became independent state in 1972. Mohammad Ali Jinnah died soon after independence and until the regime of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Pakistan went through some critical political and economic conditions. However, Pakistan today, after several ups and downs from inside as well as from outside, has well managed to poise itself and making headway.
Today’s Pakistan has once been on the crossroads of history for several millennia even dating back to world’s earliest civilizations which makes this country so special. It is one of the fascinating tourist destinations stretching from the galaxy of snow dusted mountains and deep-rooted glaciers in the north to the hot and hospitable desert plans bordering Arabian sea in the south. Pakistan is a unique place for holiday makers; it is blessed with almost all the bounties of nature – its four distinct seasons interpreting a variation of natural splendor, its people having different traditional backgrounds, its colorful cities and most of all its fascinating history. Anyone visiting this country leaves back with fascinating memories.

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